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Smooth functionality essential for running a site, is provided by Back end. The user doesn’t see it, but it is always running in the background and all the website designing is encrypted in it. Back end development needs a deeper understanding and hands-on experience in coding.

Below mentioned are the widely used Backend frameworks:

❖ Spring

A series of resources are provided by Spring for streamlining code and integrating applications of Technologies that use Java. Spring provides infrastructural support at the application level. It is the prevalent Open Source Framework in the Java Community which is even considered as a replacement for the EJB model. The Spring framework’s crux elements can be used by any Java Application.

❖ Spring Boot

For an easier bootstrapping and production of new Spring Application, Spring Boot is used. It creates stand-alone applications and follows “Opinionated Defaults Configuration” method to avoid the repeated process of coding and configuration to enhance development, Integration Test Process and Unit Test. It automatically configures Spring and provides Rapid Application Development to the framework.

❖ Hibernate

To establish a connection with the database and write queries to perform CRUD operations and more functions, Hibernate works as an Object-Relational Mapping tool. It is a framework that provides an abstraction layer and used to develop persistence logic. It is Open-source, light weight and non-invasive. It provides mapping, data query, and retrieval facilities.

❖ JDBC

The client’s access to a database is defined by Java Database Connectivity. It is a Java Application Programming Interface that connects and executes the query with the database. JDBC API is used to access tabular data stored in relational database and it provides methods to save, update, delete and fetch data from the database. JDBC is a Open Database Community and a part of Java Standard Edition Platform from Microsoft.

❖ Struts

The development of web applications quickly and efficiently is executed by the Struts Framework. It is an implementation of MVC pattern and regarded as one of the popular frameworks for web applications. It helps in the development of applications of any size. It is robust and reliable with Java. It was developed by Craig McClanahan and acquired by the Apache Foundation in the year 2000.

❖ Servlet

The Java Program modules that run server side are ‘Servlets’. They act as a mediator between the client and the server and respond to client requests to send back the response to the web server. They implement the servlet interface and enhance Web Server functionality. As a servlet is composed in Java Language, it possesses Java Features like Platform Independence, High portability, security, and JDBC.

❖ JSF

For building component-based user interfaces for Java Server applications, Java Server Faces is taken over. It allows access to server-side data and logic just like JSP does. It wraps client-side technologies thereby preventing developers from interacting with them. It provides a standard set of tools for generating a web form instead of coding it in HTML, thereby making it simple for the creation of Web applications.

❖ Node JS

Event-driven and scalable applications are built using Node.js. It is a light weight, efficient, server-side Java Script runtime that runs stand-alone JavaScript programs and makes coding much easier for the programmers. The operations in Node.js are non-blocking and is built on Chrome’s Java Script engine V8. It runs on Linux, macOS, MS Windows, IBM AIX and Smart OS.

❖ Web Services

It is the Client Server applications for communication between devices over a network. It is a software system that provides a way of an interoperable machine to machine communication. Web Services are an Independent way of Communication, where different applications from different sources, communicate with each other without the lengthy process of custom coding. Web services are not bound to any particular Operating System or Programming Language.

❖ Micro Services

A continuous development of large and complex applications is facilitated by Micro Services. They are built as a set of modular components or services, where an application is segregated into services and each service runs a process to manage its own database. They receive, process and respond to requests accordingly. It is an amalgamation of services that are loosely coupled, Highly maintainable, and Independently deployable.

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